1948 brings one of the greatest achievements: making transistor by John Bardeen, Walter Brattain and William Shockley. Transistor is a compact electronic switch that replaced the electronic tube. The invention of the transistor miniaturization triggered and orientation.
In 1949 Maurice V. Wilkes Englishman from Cambridge made, based on John von Neumann project, EDSAC (Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Computer). EDSAC was available a few months before EDVAC and received the first electronic computer storage capacity. At Harvard, in 1949, An Wang, founder of Wang Laboratories developed the magnetic core memories. Consequently, Jay Forrester at MIT (Massachutsetts Institute of Technology) found a way to organize magnetic core memories, providing a more practical application than the previous serial connection.
Computers have become faster but only now could also have larger memories. In 1951, Mauchly and Eckert have established their own company and had the objective of developing a general purpose business computer. It had to be called UNIVAC I. When Mauchly and Eckert had problems Remington Rand bought the company and thus ended their computer. UNIVAC I was designed for business applications and general purpose computer was first used commercially.
Previous computers were used only for scientific or military purposes. Census Office dealing with the UNIVAC I computer immediately installed and used more than 12 years. In Louisville, in 1954 General Electric Company was made the first list of employee computer use the computer UNIVAC I. It was really just a matter of time until other companies like Burroughs (Unisys), IBM and others realize the value of commercial computer and began to offer computers made by them.
Vacuum tubes were ineffective as a switch. Consumed much power and gives a large amount of heat and large systems yield one to two hours. Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments along with Robert Noyce of Fairchild Semiconductor found that resistors, capacitors and transistors could be made of the same semiconductor material. This led to the integrated circuit made by them in 1959, the circuit started to be used in computers since 1964. An integrated circuit is a circuit that contains more transistors on a support base and makes the connection between transistors without using wires. The first IC contained only six transistors made.
In the ’60s Gene Amdahl made groundbreaking series of very fast computers, the IBM System/360 using general purpose integrated circuit technology. Since he was a family of compatible computers and software used was an affordable investment for growing companies. Later in his own company Gene Amdahl computer built smaller and less competitive. Miniaturization of components has been a date with technological innovations, some of them even had a commercial success.
The best example is Ken Olsen and DEC IED (Digital Equipment Corporation) which produced the first minicomputer PDP-1 made in 1963. Much cheaper than the big cars that minicomputer was designed to be used by small businesses. On the other hand, the industry super-computer ILLIAC IV was first used to solve aerodynamic problems were too big and complicated for other systems. During that time great strides were made in the development of programming languages. They began to be an interesting area in 1950. John Backus and a group of engineers have developed FORTRAN (Formula Translator) as the first algebraic programming language.
In 1959, Admiral Grace Murray Hopper was the man in the development of COBOL (Common Business Oriented Language) as the first programming language designed for business. Hopper also helped the invention of UNIVAC I compiler, a program that could translate other language programs into machine 1 and 0 that the computer understands. In 1964 Douglas Englebart invented the mouse while working for Stanford Research Institute (SRI).
Title page of the mouse was “XY position indicator display system”. Company Xerox introduced the mouse or the computer system 1974 in Alto. Dr. John Kemeny, a professor of mathematics at Dartmouth together with Dr. Thomas Kurtz, developed in 1965 BASIC (Beginner’s All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code). Later they presented a version of True BASIC language called the Structured programming techniques used to make programs easier to read, debugged and improved. Today are used as programming languages languages such as Pascal, C, C + +, Java and others.
In 1967 was created the first disk drive IBM where Alan Shugart led a team responsible for the production unit. After two years Shugart left the company IBM took with him more than 100 engineers for Memorex. After more than ten years, in 1979, Finis Conner started Shugart work with the market launch of a hard drive 5 1/4 inch. They founded the company Seagate Technology and launched at the end of the hard disk interface and ST-506 was able to 5M formatted. This unit is considered the precursor of hard disk unit. Alan Shugart is a name easy to remember because it was he who created the floppy drive, hard drive and SCSI interface. In 1970 Intel has created a memory chip that can store information kilobit (1 kilobit is equal to 1024 bits, and a byte equals 8 bits – image contains 128 bytes).
Busicomp the Japanese manufacturer of computing machines seeing the success of Intel, has ordered twelve different types of circuits. Those from the company Intel in place to produce 12 different faces have included all their functions in a single chip and it was designed so that it can be controlled by a program that can change functions. In 1970 Hoff developed the first microprocessor called the Intel 4004 (“forty-oh-four”) making a dream of making a small computer, a reality. Intel 4004 chip work with four bits of data simultaneously. After 4004 followed in 1972 8-bit 8008 microprocessor. A year later appeared the first microcomputers based on the 8008 image. In 1973 Intel released the new 8080 processor that was ten times faster than 8008 and 64 kb memory address.
H. Edward Roberts in 1975 known as the “father microcomputer” has made the Altair 8800 kit that used a microprocessor 8080. It sold for about 395 USD and can be used to know some assembly was required. The computer had a bus with slots so it was possible to add further to other extensions. The 8080 processor has inspired many companies to write programs such as CP / M (Control Program for Microprocessors). In 1975 IBM released the PC (model 5100) which was 16 k of memory and also includes a display 16 lines, a BASIC interpreter and a tape drive for storage. Its price was great and so the model 5100 was not a commercial success.
Many computer companies have come and go but one of the oldest Apple Computer is founded by Steven Jobs and Stephen Wozniak. Apple’s original headquarters was a garage. Wozniak has developed a microcomputer that was accessible for individuals and for small firms. From the first Apple computers put on the market in 1977, these computers have become increasingly used. The first computer released by Apple Computer, Apple I cost 695 USD. The system was developed from a main circuit board fastened with screws to a plywood. This computer contains no case or power supply. Apple II computer came to market in 1977 has set the standard for almost all major computers that have followed, even for the IBM PC. In 1978 Philips and Sony have collaborated to produce the current audio compact disc. Since 1982 the two companies have completed standard which included among other things, the size of 4.72 inches (120 mm) and having a thickness of 1.2 mm. They say size was chosen because it allowed recording of the Ninth Symphony of Beethoven. Philips and Sony have developed and specifications for CD-ROM that is used by us today. In 1981 Adam Osborne introduced a portable microcomputer, the Osborne 1. This singing about 11 kg, had a 64 kilo-bytes of memory, and costs 1795 USD.
After the launch of the 5100, 1975, 5110 and 5120 models followed, then, IBM has launched the 5150 which is known as the IBM Personal Computer. Company does not record commercial success and thus in 1980 it was decided to enter the market lower priced computer market. Making a personal computer was largely influenced by DataMaster project, a project under which the keyboard and monitor were integrated whole. These features impose some restrictions and thus monitor and keyboard became external units.
Were copied from the DataMaster and other parts such as slots for input / output which can be used as personal computer using the same controller as the system breaks DataMaster. DataMaster have a 8085 microprocessor and a bus 8-bit internal and external. Design team used a personal computer microprocessor Intel 8088 which had a 16-bit internal bus and the external one being 8 bits. Engineers working on the project studied computer market trying to meet standards that dominated and incorporated in their system all of which had had success. Worked for IBM PC with new languages, then, Microsoft small company today is one of the largest software companies.
In 1996 a ranking of the top ten sellers of software company ranks second with sales of $ 9.435 billion, surpassed by IBM at that time passed the threshold than ten billion, its sales reached 12.911 billion dollars. On August 12, 1981 in the computer industry came a new standard. From 1981 and until today the number of PC compatible computers sold has reached hundreds of millions. Chip Intel 80286 processor released in 1981 is IBM PC AT and IBM was chosen because it was compatible with 8088 (programs written for 8088 went face and 286). 1985 brings the launch of the new and much-performance Intel 80386 chip, a 32 bit processor. After release of the first 486 DX in April 1989 processors appeared better every year, which significantly increased system performance. Among these are important data first appearance Pentium (March 1993), the Pentium Pro processor (September 1995) as well as the current Pentium MMX Pentium II, Celeron, Pentium III, Pentium IV, etc..
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